Started school at 6 years old and finished through fourth grade

The Hershey Company-Founder,Hershey BarHershey, Pennsylvania-founder/planner, Hershey Cemetery

Milton Snavely Hershey(September 13, 1857 October 13, 1945) was an American chocolatier, businessman, and philanthropist.

Trained in the confectionery business, Hershey pioneered the manufacture ofcaramel, using fresh milk. He launched the Lancaster Caramel Company, which achieved bulk exports, and then sold it to start a new company supplying mass-produced milk chocolate, previously a luxury.

The first Hershey Bars were sold in 1900, and proved so popular that he was able to build his own company town of Hershey, Pennsylvania, reflecting his beliefs about the effect of comfortable living conditions on staff morale. Hersheys philanthropic agenda extended to aboarding school, originally for local orphans, but now accommodating 2000 students. In World War II, the company developed a special non-melting bar for troops serving overseas.The Hershey Company, known as Hersheys, is one of the worlds biggest confectionery manufacturers.

Milton Hershey was born on September 13, 1857 to Henry and Veronica Fanny Snavely Hershey. Born the son of a Christian father, his family were members of PennsylvaniasMennonitecommunity. His ancestors were Swiss and German and had settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700s. He grew up speakingPennsylvania Dutch.1

In April 1862, Hersheys sister Sarena Hershey was born inDerry Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, and died in 1867 at age 4.2

Like many rural young people of the time, Milton was expected to help out on the family farm, and he learned early on of the value of hard work and perseverance. Henry Hershey rarely stayed anywhere very long, and was prone to leaving his wife and child for long periods. Because of this, Hershey had a very limited education with no schooling beyond the 4th grade.

In 1871, Milton Hershey left school for good and was apprenticed to a local printer, Sam Ernst, who published a German-English newspaper. He did not like that kind of work and he thought it was very boring. One day at work there, he accidentally dropped his hat in one of the machines. Because his boss was hot-tempered, he was fired shortly after. He was worried to see how his parents would react. His father asked Ernst to take him back, and he did decide to give him a second chance, but Mattie Snavely, his aunt, and his mother had a different idea. They wanted him to learn the trade of candy making instead.3So, his mother arranged for the 14-year-old Hershey to be apprenticed to a confectioner named Joseph Royer inLancaster, Pennsylvania. Over the next four years, Hershey learned the craft of creating confections. In 1876, he moved to Philadelphia to start his first confectionery business.

Milton then traveled to Denver and, finding work at a local confectioners, learned how to make caramels using fresh milk. He then went toNew OrleansandChicagolooking for opportunities, before settling inNew York Cityin 1883 and training atHuylers. He started his second business which, while initially successful, lasted only three years, closing in 1886.4

Hershey returned to Lancaster in 1883. He borrowed money from the bank to start theLancaster Caramel Company, which quickly became a success. He used the caramel recipe he had obtained during his previous travels to make candies. Also, from his previous travels, he learned that caramels sell better in bulk, so that is what he did. This company soon became a success when a man from England visited Lancaster. He loved Hersheys candies once he tasted them and placed a big order to be delivered to Britain. Hershey was able to pay off his debt and had money left over to buy more ingredients and equipment.

By the early 1890s Lancaster Caramel Company had grown, employing over 1,300 workers in two factories. After a travel to Chicago for theWorlds Columbian Exposition, he sparked an interest in chocolate. After a long time of deciding, he took a risk and sold Lancaster Caramel Company for one million dollars to start the famous Hershey Chocolate Company.5

Using the proceeds from the 1900 sale of the Lancaster Caramel Company, Hershey initially acquired farm land roughly 30 miles (50km) northwest of Lancaster, near his birthplace of Derry Township. There, he could obtain the large supplies of fresh milk needed to perfect and produce fine milk chocolate. Excited by the potential of milk chocolate, which at that time was a luxury product, Hershey was determined to develop a formula for milk chocolate and market and sell it to the American public. Through trial and error, he created his own formula for milk chocolate. The firstHershey barwas produced in 1900. Hersheys Kisses were developed in 1907, and the Hersheys Bar with almonds was introduced in 1908.

On March 2, 1903, he began construction on what was to become the worlds largest chocolate manufacturing company. The facility, completed in 1905, was designed to manufacture chocolate using the latest mass production techniques. Hersheys milk chocolate quickly became the first nationally marketed product of its kind.

The factory was in the center of a dairy farmland, but with Hersheys support, houses, businesses, churches and a transportation infrastructure accreted around the plant. Because the land was surrounded by dairy farms, Hershey was able to use fresh milk to mass-produce quality milk chocolate. Hershey continued to experiment and perfect the process of making milk chocolate using the techniques he had first learned for adding milk to make caramels when he had moved to Drexel Hill.

Since Hershey and his wife could not have children, they decided to help others, establishing theHershey Industrial Schoolwith a Deed of Trust in 1909.6

In 1918, Hershey transferred the majority of his assets, including control of the company, to theMilton Hershey School Trustfund, to benefit the Industrial School. The trust fund has a majority of voting shares in the Hershey Company, allowing it to keep control of the company. In 1951, the school was renamed the Milton Hershey School. The Milton Hershey School Trust also has 100% control ofHershey Entertainment and Resorts Company, which owns theHotel HersheyandHersheypark, among other properties. He took great pride in the growth of the school, the town, and his business. He placed the quality of his product and the well-being of his workers ahead of profits.7

He was part of a forward-looking group of entrepreneurs who believed that providing better living conditions for their workers resulted in better workersMilton Hershey conceived of building a community that would support and nurture his workers. Developing the community became a lifelong passion for him.

Hershey built Hershey Cemetery on Laudermich Road inHershey, Pennsylvania. On July 31, 1923, Hershey transferred the land into a cemetery for $1.00.910

In 1935, Hershey established the M.S. Hershey Foundation, a private charitable foundation that provides educational and cultural opportunities for Hershey residents.11The foundation supplies funding for three entities: theHershey MuseumandHershey Gardens, theHershey Theatreand the Hershey Community Archives.

The founding of thePenn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Centeroccurred in 1963 when the board of the trust went to theDauphin CountyOrphans Court with thecy-prs doctrine(cy prsis a French phrase meaning As close as possible). It was a gift from the Milton Hershey School Trust to the people ofPennsylvania, with an initial endowment of $50 million and only one restrictionthe hospital had to be built in Hershey. The hospital is ateaching hospital, with an annual budget exceeding the initial construction cost.

The Hershey Company has continued his philanthropic ways. The Hershey Company helped start upElizabethtown Colleges honors program.12

In 1912, the Hersheys, Milton and Kitty were booked to travel on the ill-fated maiden voyage of theBritishluxury linerRMSTitanic. They canceled their reservations at the last minute due to business matters requiring Hersheys attention. The cancellation is often incorrectly attributed to Kitty Hershey falling ill, but by this time, she had been ill for several years.13Instead, they booked passage to New York on the German luxury linerSS Amerika. The former Hershey Museum displayed a copy of the check Milton Hershey wrote to theWhite Star Lineas a deposit for a first-class stateroom on theTitanic.14This copy is now located in the archives of theHershey Story Museum, which replaced the original Hershey Museum in 2009.15

Hershey Chocolate supplied the U.S. armed forces withchocolate barsduringWorld War II. These bars were called Ration D Bars and Tropical Chocolate Bars. The Ration D Bar had very specific requirements from the army: It had to weigh 1 or 2 ounces (28 or 57g); it had to resist melting at temperatures higher than 90 degrees, and it had to have an unpleasant-enough flavor to prevent the troops from developing cravings for them. After a year or two, the Army was impressed enough with the durability and success of the Ration D Bar to commission Milton to make the Tropical Chocolate Bar. The only difference between them was that the Tropical Chocolate Bar was made to taste better than the Ration D Bar and still be as durable. Tropical Chocolate Bars were designed not to melt in the tropical weather. It is estimated that between 1940 and 1945, over three billion of the Ration D and Tropical Chocolate Bars were produced and distributed to soldiers throughout the world. In 1939, the Hershey plant was capable of producing 100,000 ration bars a day. By the end of World War II, the entire Hershey plant was producing ration bars at a rate of 24 million a week. For its service throughout World War II, the Hershey Chocolate Company was issued five Army-Navy E Production Awards for exceeding expectations for quality and quantity in the production of the Ration D and Tropical Chocolate Bars. The Hershey factory machine shop even made some parts for tanks and machines during the war.16

On May 25, 1898, Hershey married Catherine Elizabeth Kitty Sweeney (b. 1872), an Irish-American Catholic fromJamestown, New York.17Hershey and his wife Catherine did not have any children.18

On March 25, 1915, Hersheys wife Catherine died of an unknown disease.17In 1919, Hershey moved his wife Catherines body from Philadelphia to Hershey Cemetery.9In March 1920, Hersheys mother Fanny Hershey died and she was buried in Hershey Cemetery. In late 1930, his fathers body was moved there.9

Hershey died of pneumonia in Hershey Hospital on October 13, 1945 at the age of 88.19Hershey is buried at Hershey Cemetery, a cemetery which he built, on Laudermilch Rd inHershey, Pennsylvania. Hersheys grave is located at Section Spec-Her, Lot 1, Grave 1, next to his wife (Grave 2).910

At the Hershey School, there is a bronze statue of Milton Hershey with an orphan boy wrapped in his arms. Below the statue are these words: His deeds are his monument. His life is our inspiration.

September 13 is International Chocolate Day, which is also Hersheys birthday.20

On September 13, 1995, the United States Postal Service issued a 32-cent stamp for Milton S. Hershey, which honors him as a philanthropist, as part of theGreat Americans series. The stamp was designed by Dennis Lyall, an artist fromNorwalk, Connecticut.2122

International Chocolate Day occurs annually on Hersheys birthday

Milton S. Hershey, Milton Hershey School. . Retrieved on 2013-07-23.

April 12, 1862 Sarena Hershey. HersheyArchives.org

. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books. p.15.ISBN

, Hershey Archives.orgRetrieved on 2014-08-15.

. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. pp.2340.ISBN

2010-11-01 at theWayback MachineNovember 15, 1909 (As restated on November 15, 1976)

Mary Davidoff Houts, Pamela Whitenack (2000).

Mary Davidoff Houts, Pamela Whitenack (2000).

Hershey Cemetery, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. Interment.com

Elizabethtown College.College Honors Program.

Daugherty, Greg,Seven Famous People Who Missed the

Todd MountfordMilton S.Hersheys link to Titanic highlights exhibit.

Hostetter, Christina J. Sugar Allies: How Hershey and Coca-Cola Used Government Contracts and Sugar Exemptions to Elude Sugar Rationing Regulations. Masters Thesis, University of Maryland, 2004.

. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p.112.ISBN

Hershey: Milton S. Hersheys Extraordinary Life of Wealth, Empire, and Utopian Dreams

September 13, 1995 First Day of Issue…HersheyArchives.org

32-cent Hershey. Smithsonian National Postal Museum

M. Hersheys Biography by the Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company

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